13 Sep To examine to you. Technique of study 5/8.
The examinations are an undesirable part of the studies and nobody wants nor an examination more of the essential thing. In my case, 20 years after finishing the race, itself having nightmares in which I appear to examinations without having nor idea and group of people frightened by the corridors of a ghostly faculty¦
Unfortunately, the word examination evokes odious sensations that hide the fact that to examine to you on the studied improvement and consolidates the learned thing. This is known for more than 100 years (1). It is more, if the examination well is elaborated, you can get to leave the classroom understanding better the studied thing than before realising it (that happened to me with my semester examinations of Pharmacology of 2º of race).
TRANQUILLITY, THAT I AM NOT SPEAKING OF FORMAL EXAMINATIONS
When we spoke to examine you during the study we talked about to any technique that forces to you to recall what you have already read and worked previously. For it we can use:
- Real examinations of other years
- Cards (flashcards)
- Phrases written down in the margins of our notes taken with the technique of Cornell
- Questions provided at the end of each chapter in some books (as the Manual of Otolaryngology of Ramrez Camacho, never taken advantage of by the students the UAM-10 or 15 units in the library well to prepare examination ORL¦).
- Questions prepared by your companions of study (if you have a training group in the faculty, subject of which we will speak someday).
WHY IT WORKS TO BE EXAMINED?
To try to recall a content studied previously has the effect to reorganize the information, to activate information related kept in the long term memory, to force to you to codify more relations between which you want to learn. All this is propose hypotheses by the experts, but it is easy to understand that when you search carefully in your mind to answer a question, you are working on the material and giving him returned, doing it plus yours. You are placed in an active position with the material and this is beneficial, as it is search analogies and images to it (the post remembers on mental images), or to make comparative tables (in this post).
An effect that seems to me very interesting is that, after examining to you on a concrete subject, mainly if you have failed in the answers, it give account to you of understanding errors that can happen in the first review, and facilitates that you correctly codify the concepts in the later re-examination (2).
Finally, this technique of study requires of a minimum training to learn to use it. If you do not have examinations of other years, you can practice with two types of material made by same you:
- Notes Cornell model (with its margin in target to point key words or questions with a view to the review)
- Memory cards (the act to prepare them is a study form also).
IT SERVES THIS IN SANITARY STUDIES?
It serves in all the studies! One has tried on in primary, secondary and university education. It has been investigated and confirmed his utility to learn languages, geography, species of birds, structures of a flower, history, meaning of symbols, cardiopulmonary resuscitation (3)¦ any thing.
So that you see to what extent this technique is useful, I enumerate several aspects to you demonstrated by the scientific evidence (4):
- It improves the learning with any format of examination: free memory, questions of short answer, questions type test (multiple answer). Even if the format with that you practice is different from the type of final exam that you will have later. This means that you can use your cards with total tranquillity, if you cannot secure an examination similar to which you will happen officially. That yes, some formats work better, those than they force to you to generate the answer, more than to recognize the correct answer; that is to say, the free memory or the short question is more effective. To greater difficulty, major reward.
- It works to any age, and it has been demonstrated with studies realised in primary day-care centers, schools, students of secondary, middle-aged and old medicine students, adults.
- It works with any level of knowledge, that is to say, inexperienced students and experience. That is, that if you are thinking that you are less intelligent than your companions (idea who already you can be erasing of your head), yes, this technique also is for you (and it will do to you more intelligent, without a doubt;)). Vote demonstrated that it worked in patients of Alzheimer! (5)
- It works as much to remember data as to make inferences, that is to say, improves the understanding than you have studied and favors doing relations between facts, something that the students of Medicine, Infirmary, Physiotherapy, etc, must do continuously.
- It works with any type of material that you have used to learn something, are short texts, long texts, videos or anatomical laminae.
- It works with any term of time, that is to say, whether the formal examination on the following day takes place as if one week takes place later or several weeks or even months later. In order to secure a lasting memory he is better to re-examine itself more at intervals spaced. This is the great news for the students who need to remember contents to very long term, as the competing futures of the MIR, PIR, EIR, QIR, etc. How to obtain this, nevertheless, it requires of a planning to short, half and long term that I will have to investigate for next entrances of the blog ð
YOU HAVE CONVINCED TO ME! WHICH IS THE BEST WAY TO STUDY WITH EXAMINATIONS?
- 2-3 elaborates cards maximum by each subject, when you review them after the classes (or when you read them for the second time if you have not gone to class). If you are not able to work on a daily basis, it works per weeks. You do not demand yourself to be exhaustive. Better few cards (but learned well) every week that to oppress to you to try to make all the cards of all the classes of the previous week. It uses questions of short answer, or comparative tables.
- It is demonstrated that it is better more. The concepts pay attention better if you review questions as much exceeds they until you guess right them several times, in the same session of study as in different sessions. This you can obtain classifying it the questions of examination or the cards that there are preparation in two parts: in one, those that you respond or the first one or second review (you leave that pile for the following week); in another one, those that you respond bad and you must review on a daily basis. Some applications as Anki selects automatically what questions you must more often review.
- If you can secure explanations on why of each correct answer, also it works better. So you can add a brief explanation to the foot of your memory cards, under the correct answer. *Recuerda how to make cards for short questions here.
- It will give time Me to everything, to read, to make schemes and to practice questions? If it does not give time you, it remembers what Dunlosky and cabbages. they emphasize in his revision, that is more efficient to spend a determined time to examine to you that to re-study. Perhaps you must learn to resign to a re-reading in exchange for making cards. But an advantage that has cards or flashcards, whether is in fine cardboard as in one app of the mobile as Anki, is that you can review them in the dead short whiles that we have throughout the day, as the transport from house to the faculty and back from house.
- It has been verified that the benefits to examine to you are majors if it beams in different days, that is to say, it is not necessary to review a card swearword several times in the same sitting; also the effect is superior if the interval between a review and another one is longer, although the effort to put you to it is greater.
IT BEGINS TODAY
- Beam the first cards although are simple and although they are in paper.
- It changes your notes to Cornell technique simply drawing up a line in the margin in your next class.
- A look throws to Anki and other applications of spaced review.
- It reviews already and where it is: it takes your cards in the bus, of stroll by the field, in the park.
- If you are oppressed, test with 1 subject and you do trial and error with her. If you like, generalize it to all the fourth month period although you are already to 2 weeks of the examinations, because better late than never.
YOU USE CARDS TO STUDY? COUNT US IN THE COMMENTARIES HOW YOU USE THEM AND WHAT RESULTS YOU DAN
Other entrances on study techniques:
- 1/8 Subrayar
- 2/8 mental Images
- 3/8 comparative Tables
- 4/8 Releer
- 6/8 Espaciar reviews
- 7/8 Interleave
- 8/8 Autoexplicaci³n
1. Abbott, E.E. (1909). On the analysis of the factors of recall in the learning process. Psychological Monographs, 11, 159-177. doi: 10.1037/h0093018.
2. Roediger, H.L., III, & Karpicke, J.D. (2006). The to power of testing memory: BASIC research and implications for educational practice. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 1, 181-210.
3. Kromann, H.P., Jensen, M.L., & Ringsted, C. (2009). The effects of testing on skills learning. Medical Education, 43, 21-27.
4. Dunlosky J, Rawson KA, Marsh EX, Nathan MJ, Willinghamd DT. Improving students' learning with effective learning techniques: Educational Promising directions from cognitive and psychology. Psychological Science in the Public Interest 2013; 14:4-58.
5. It votes, D.A., Duchek, J.M., Sergent-Marshall, S.D., & Roediger, H.L., III. (2006). Does retrieval Does expanded produce benefits to over equal-interval spacing? Explorations of spacing effects in healthy aging and early stage Alzheimer's disease. Psychology and Aging, 21, 19-31.